Original Peer Reviewd Articles

  1. Pape JW, Levine B, Beaulieu M, Marshall F, Verdier R, and Johnson WD Jr.  Cryptosporidiosis in Haitian children.  Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987; 36:333-337.
  2. Levine B, Liederman I, Siegal FP, Mayer LK, and Cunningham-Rundles C.  Genotypes of the group-specific component protein in black intravenous drug abusers.  J Infect Dis. 1989; 159:147-48.
  3. Levine B, Kalman J, Mayer L, Fillit HM, and Packer M.  Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor in severe chronic heart failure.  N Engl J Med. 1990; 323:236-241.
  4. Levine B and Chaisson RE.  Mycobacterium kansasii:  A cause of treatable pulmonary disease associated with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection.  Ann Intern Med. 1991; 114:861-868.
  5. Levine B, Hardwick JM, Trapp BD, Crawford TO, Bollinger RC, and Griffin DE.  Antibody-mediated clearance of alphavirus infection from neurons.  Science. 1991; 254:856-860.
  6. Levine B and Griffin DE.  Persistence of viral RNA in mouse brain after recovery from acute alphavirus encephalitis.  J Virol.  1992; 66:6429-6435.
  7. Tyor WR, Wesselingh SL, Levine B, and Griffin DE.  Longterm intraparenchymal immunoglobulin secretion following acute alphavirus encephalitis.  J Immunol.  1992; 149:4016-4020.
  8. Levine B, Huang X, Isaacs JT, Reed JC, Griffin DE, and Hardwick JM.  Conversion of lytic to persistent alphavirus infection by the bcl-2 cellular oncogene.  Nature. 1993; 361:739-742.
  9. Levine B and Griffin DE.  Molecular analysis of neurovirulent strains of Sindbis virus that evolve during persistent infection of scid mice.  J Virol. 1993; 67:6872-6875.
  10. Wesselingh SL, Levine B, Fox RJ, Choi S, and Griffin DE.  Intracerebral cytokine mRNA expresssion during fatal and nonfatal alphavirus encephalitis suggests a predominant type 2 T cell response.  J Immunol.  1994; 152:1289-1297.
  11. Ubol S, Levine B, Lee SH, Greenspan NS, and Griffin DE.  Role of immunoglobulin heavy chain constant domain in antibody-mediated downregulation of Sindbis virus replication in persistently infected neurons.  J Virol.  1995; 69:1990-1993.
  12. *Levine B, Jiang HH, Kleeman L, and Yang G.  Effects of E2 envelope glycoprotein cytoplasmic domain mutations on Sindbis virus pathogenesis.  J Virol. 1996; 70:1255-1260.
  13. Cheng EHY, Levine B, Boise LH, Thompson CB, and Hardwick JM.  Bax-independent inhibition of apoptosis by BclxL.  Nature. 1996; 379:554-556.
  14. *Levine B, Goldman JE, Jiang HH, Griffin DE, and Hardwick JM.  Bcl-2 protects mice against fatal alphavirus encephalitis.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1996; 93:4810-4815.
  15. *Joe A, Ferrari G, Jiang HH, and Levine B.  Dominant inhibitory Ras delays Sindbis virus-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells.  J Virol. 1996; 70: 7744-7751.
  16. Park DS, Levine B, Ferrari G, and Greene LA.  Cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors and dominant negative cyclin dependent kinase 4 and 6 promote survival of NGF-deprived sympathetic neurons.  J Neurosci. 1997; 17:8975-8983.
  17. *Liang XH, Jiang HH, and Levine B.  Expression of a biologically active antiviral antibody using a Sindbis virus vector system.  Mol Immunol. 1997; 34:907-917.
  18. Nava VE, Rosen A, Veliuona MA, Clem RJ, Levine B, and Hardwick JM.  Sindbis virus induces apoptosis through a caspase-dependent, Crm-A-sensitive pathway.  J Virol. 1998; 72:452-459.
  19. *Joe AK, Foo HH, Kleeman L, and Levine B.  The transmembrane domains of Sindbis virus envelope glycoproteins induce cell death.  J Virol. 1998; 72:3935-3943.
  20. Gordon GW, Berry G, Liang XH, Levine B, and Herman B.  Quantitative fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements using fluorescence microscopy.  Biophys J. 1998; 74:2702-2713.
  21. * Liang XH, Kleeman LK, Jiang HH, Gordon GW, Goldman JE, Berry G, Herman B, and Levine B.  Protection against fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis by Beclin, a novel Bcl-2-interacting protein.  J Virol. 1998; 72:8586-8596.
  22. *Liang XH, Goldman JE, Jiang HH, and Levine B.  Resistance of interleukin-1b-deficient mice to fatal Sindbis virus encephalitis.  J Virol. 1999; 73:2563-2567.
  23. *Aita VM, Liang XH, Pincus DL, Murty VVVS, Gilliam TC, and Levine B.  Cloning and genomic organization of beclin 1, a candidate tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 17q21.  Genomics. 1999; 59:59-65.
  24. *Liang XH, Jackson S, Seaman M, Brown K, Kempkes B, Hibshoosh H, and Levine B.  Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1Nature. 1999; 402:672-676.
  25. *Liang XH, Yu J, Brown K, and Levine B.  Beclin 1 contains a leucine-rich nuclear export signal that is required for its autophagy and tumor suppressor function.  Cancer Res.  2001; 61:3443-3449.
  26. Gil ML, Bohn E, O’Guin AK, Ramana CV, Levine B, Stark GR, Virgin HW, and Shreiber RD.  Biologic consequences of Stat1-independent IFN signaling.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  2001; 98:6680-6685.
  27. *Johnston C, Jiang W, Chu T, and Levine B.  Identification of genes involved in the host response to neurovirulent alphavirus infection.  J Virol. 2001; 75:10431-10445.
  28. *Talloczy Z, Jiang W, Virgin HW, Lieb DA, Scheuner D, Kaufman RJ, Eskelinen E-L, and Levine B.  Regulation of starvation- and virus-induced autophagy by the eIF2a kinase signaling pathway.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  2002; 99:190-195.
  29. van Berkel V, Levine B, Goldman JE, Speck SH,  and Virgin HW.  Critical role for a high-affinity chemokine-binding protein in g-herpesvirus-induced lethal meningitis.  J Clin Invest. 2002; 109:905-914.
  30. Kapadia SK, Levine B, Speck SH, and Virgin HW.  Critical role of complement and viral evasion of complement in acute, persistent, and latent g-herpesvirus infection.  Immunity. 2002; 17:143-155.
  31. *Labrada L, Liang XH, Johnston C, and Levine B.  Age-dependent resistance to lethal alphavirus encephalitis in mice:  Analysis of gene expression in the central nervous system and identification of a novel interferon-inducible protective gene, mouse ISG12.  J Virol. 2002; 76:11688-11703.
  32. *Melendez A, Talloczy Z, Seaman M, Eskelinen E-L, Hall DH, and Levine B.  Autophagy genes are essential for dauer development and life-span extension in C. elegansScience. 2003; 301:1387-1391.
  33. *Qu X, Yu J, Bhaghat G, Furuya N, Hibshoosh H, Troxel A, Rosen J, Eskelinen E-L, Mizushima N, Ohsumi Y, Cattoretti G, and Levine B.  Promotion of tumorigenesis by heterozygous disruption of the beclin 1 autophagy gene.  J Clin Invest. 2003; 112:1809-1820.
  34. *Furuya N, Yu J, Byfield M, Pattingre S, and Levine B.  The evolutionarily conserved domain of Beclin 1 is required for Vps34 binding, autophagy and tumor suppressor function.  Autophagy. 2005; 1:46-52.
  35. Liu Y, Schiff M, Czymmek K, Talloczy Z, Levine B, and Dinesh-Kumar SP.  Autophagy regulates programmed cell death during the plant innate immune response.  Cell. 2005; 121:567-577.
  36. *Pattingre S, Tassa A, Qu X, Liang XH, Packer M, Schneider MD, and Levine B.  Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins inhibit Beclin 1-dependent autophagy.  Cell. 2005; 122:927-939.
  37. Loh J, Huang Q, Petros AM, Nettesheim D, van Dyk LF, Labrada L, Speck SH, Levine B, Olejnmiczak ET, and Virgin HW.  A surface groove essential for viral Bcl-2 function during chronic infection in vivo.  PLOS Pathogen. 2005; 1:0080-0091.
  38. Lenschow DJ, Giannakopoulos NV, Verkamp LJ, Schmidt R, Levine B, and Virgin HW.  Identification of interferon-stimulated gene 15 as an antiviral molecule during Sindbis virus infection in vivo.  J Virol. 2005; 79:13974-13983.
  39. *Talloczy Z, Virgin HW, and Levine B.  PKR-dependent autophagic degradation of herpes simplex virus type 1.  Autophagy. 2006; 2:24-29.
  40. *Jia K, Hart A, and Levine B.  Autophagy genes protect against disease caused by polyglutamine expansion proteins in Caenorhabitis elegansAutophagy. 2007; 3:21-25.
  41. Lenschow D, Lai C, Fias-Staheli N, Giannakopoulos NV, Lutz A, Wolff T, Osiak A, Levine B, Schmidt RE, Garcia-Sastre A, Leib DA, Pekosz A, Knobeloch K-P, Horak I, and Virgin HW.  IFN-stimulated gene 15 functions as a critical antiviral molecule against influenza, herpes, and Sindbis viruses.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2007; 104:1371-1376.
  42. *Qu X, Zou Z, Sun Q, Luby-Phelps K, Cheng P, Hogan RN, Gilpin C, and Levine B.  Autophagy gene-dependent clearance of apoptotic cells during embryonic development.  Cell. 2007; 128:931-946.
  43. *Orvedahl A, Alexander D, Talloczy Z, Leib DA, and Levine B.  HSV-1 ICP34.5 confers neurovirulence by targeting the Beclin 1 autophagy protein.  Cell Host & Microbe. 2007; 1:23-35.
  44. Matsui Y, Takagi Y, Qu X, Abdellatif M, Sakoda H, Asano T, Levine B, and Sadoshima J.  Distinct roles of autophagy in the heart during ischemia and reperfusion: roles of AMP-activated protein kinase and Beclin 1 in mediating autophagy.  Circ Res. 2007; 100:914-922.
  45. Zhu H, Tannous P, Johnstone JL, Kong Y, Shelton JM, Richardson JA, Levine B, Rothermel BA, and Hill JA.  Cardiac autophagy is a maladaptive response to hemodynamic stress.  J Clin Invest. 2007; 117:1782-1793.
  46. Alexander DE, Ward SL, Mizushima N, Levine B, and  Leib DA.  Analysis of the role of autophagy in replication of herpes simplex virus in cell culture.  J Virol. 2007; 81:12128-12134.
  47. *Jia K and Levine B.  Autophagy is required for dietary restriction-mediated life span extension in C. elegansAutophagy. 2007; 3:597-599.
  48. Pickford F, Masliah E, Britschgi M,  Lucin K, Narasimhan R, Jaeger PA, Small S, Spencer B, Rockenstein E, Levine B, and Wyss-Coray T.  The autophagy-related proten Beclin 1 shows reduced expression in early Alzheimer disease and regulates amyloid β accumulation in mice.  J Clin Invest. 2008; 118:2190-2199.  PMCID: PMC2391284
  49. *Wei Y, Pattingre S, Sinha S, Bassik M, and Levine B.  JNK1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 regulates starvation-induced autophagy.  Mol Cell. 2008; 30:678-688.  PMCID: PMC2478643
  50. Tannous P, Zhu H, Johnstone JL, Shelton JM, Soorappan R, Benjamin IJ, Burns DK, Levine B, Rothermel BA, and Hill JA.  Autophagy is an adaptive response in desmin-related cardiomyopathy.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008; 105(28):9745-9750.  PMCID: PMC2474535
  51. *Sinha S, Colbert C, Becker N, Wei Y, and Levine B.  Molecular basis of the regulation of Beclin 1-dependent autophagy by the g-herpesvirus 68 Bcl-2 homolog M11.  Autophagy. 2008; 4:989-997.  PMCID: PMC2755179
  52. *Wei Y, Sinha S, and Levine B.  Dual role of JNK1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 in autophagy and apoptosis regulation.  Autophagy. 2008; 4:949-951.  PMCID: PMC2677707
  53. Pattingre S, Bauvy C, Levine B, and Codogno P.  Role of JNK1-dependent Bcl-2 phosphorylation in ceramide-induced macroautophagy.   J Biol Chem.  2009; 284:2719-2728.  PMCID: PMC2631952
  54. Pattingre S, Bauvy C, Levade T,  Levine B, and Codogno P.  Ceramide-induced autophagy: to junk or to protect cells?  Autophagy  2009; 5:558-560.  PMCID: PMC3501009
  55. *Jia K, Thomas C, Akbar M, Sun Q, Adams-Huet B, and Levine B.  Autophagy genes protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection and mediate insulin signaling-regulated pathogen resistance.  Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.  2009; 106:14564-14569.  PMCID:  PMC2731839
  56. *Orvedahl A, MacPherson S, Sumpter R, Talloczy Z, Zou Z, and Levine B.  Autophagy protects against Sindbis virus infection of the central nervous system.  Cell Host & Microbe.  2010; 18:115-127.  PMCID: PMC2860265
  57. Portillo J-A, Okenka G, Reed E, Subauste A, Van Grol J, Gentil K, Komatsu M, Tanaka K, Landreth G, Levine B, Subauste C.  The CD40-autophagy pathway is needed for host protection despite IFN-g-dependent immunity and CD40 induces autophagy via control of P21 levels.  PLoS One. 2010 Dec 31;5(12):e14472.  PMCID: PMC3013095
  58. *Wang R and Levine B. Calcipotriol induces autophagy in HeLa cells and keratinocytes.  J Invest Derm.  2011;131:990-993. PMCID: PMC3131686
  59. Bodemann BO, Orvedahl A, Cheng T, Ram RR, Ou YH, Formstecher E, Maiti M, Hazelett C, Wauson EM, Balakireva M, Camonis JH, Yeaman C, Levine B, and White MA. RalB and the exocyst mediate the cellular response to nutrient deprivation by direct activation of the autophagosome initiation complex. Cell  2011; 144:253-267. PMCID: PMC3038590
  60. Strappazoni F, Vietri-Rudan M, Campello S, Fimia GM, Piacentini M, Levine B, and Cecconi F.    Mitochondrial BCL-2 inhibits AMBRA1-induced autophagy.  EMBO J. 2011; 30:195-208. PMCID: PMC3094111
  61. *Orvedahl A, Sumpter R, Xiao G, Ng A, Zou Z, Tang Y, Narimatsu M, Gilpin C, Sun Q, Roth M, Forst CV, Wrana JL, Zhang YE, Luby-Phelps K, Xavier R, Xie Y, and Levine B. Image-based genome-wide siRNA screen identifies selective autophagy factors.  Nature  2011; 480:113-117. PMCID: PMC3229641
  62. * He C, Bassik MC, Moresi V, Sun K, Wei Y, Zou Z, An Z, Loh J, Fisher J, Sun Q, Korsmeyer S, Packer M, May HI, Hill JA, Virgin HW, Gilpin C, Xiao G, Bassel-Duby R, Scherer PE, and Levine B. Exercise induced BCL2-regulated autophagy is required for muscle glucose homeostasis. Nature 2012;481;511-515. PMCID: PMC3518436
  63. Joubert PE, Werneke SW, de la Calle C, Guivel-Benhassine F, Giodini A, Peduto L, Levine B, Schwartz O, Lenschow DJ, Albert ML. Chikungunya virus-induced autophagy delays caspase-dependent cell death. J Exp Med. 2012; 209(5):1029-47. PMCID: PMC3348111
  64. Joubert PE, Werneke S, de la Calle C, Guivel-Benhassine F, Giodini A, Peduto L, Levine B, Schwartz O, Lenschow D, and Albert ML.  Chikungunya-induced cell death is limited by ER and oxidative stress-induced autophagy. Autophagy. 2012; 8:1261-1263. PMCID:PMC22836517
  65. *He C, Sumpter Jr R, and Levine B. Exercise induces autophagy in peripheral tissues and in the brain. Autophagy. 2012; 8:1548-1551. PMCID: PMC3463459
  66. *Huang S, Jia K, Wang Y, Zhou Z, and Levine B. Autophagy genes function in apoptotic cell corpse clearance during C. elegans embryonic development. Autophagy. 2013; 9:138-49. PMCID: PMC3552879
  67. *Wang RC, Wei Y, An Z, Zou Z, Xiao G, Bhagat G, White M, Reichelt J, and Levine B.  Akt-mediated regulation of autophagy and tumorigenesis through Beclin 1 phosphorylation. Science. 2012; 338:956-959.  PMCID: PMC3507442
  68. Hasan M, Koch J, Rakheja D, Pattnaik A, Brugarolas J, Dozmorov I, Levine B, Wakeland EK, Lee-Kirsch MA, Yan N.  Trex1 regulates lysosomal biogenesis and interferon-independent activation of antiviral genes. Nat Immunol. 2013; 14:61-71. PMCID: PMC3522772
  69. *Shoji-Kawata S, Sumpter Jr R, Leveno M, Campbell GR, Zou Z, Kinch L, Wilkins AD, Sun Q, Pallauf K, MacDuff D, Huerta C, Virgin HW IV, Helms B, Eerland R,  Tooze SA, Xavier R, Lenschow DJ, Yamamoto A, King D, Lichtarge O, Grishin NV, Spector SA, Kaloyanova DV, and Levine B.  Identification of a candidate therapeutic autophagy-inducing peptide. Nature. 2013; 494:201-206. PMCID: PMC23364696
  70. Benjamin JL, Sumpter R Jr, Levine B, Hooper LV. Intestinal epithelial autophagy is essential for host defense against invasive bacteria. Cell Host & Microbe. 2013; 13:723-34. PMCID: PMC3755484
  71. *He C, Wei Y, Sun K, Li B, Dong X, Zou Z, Liu Y, Kinch LN, Khan S, Sinha S, Xavier RJ, Grishin NV, Xiao G, Eskelinen EL, Scherer PE, Whistler JL, and Levine B. Beclin 2 functions in autophagy, degradation of G protein-coupled receptors, and metabolism. Cell. 2013; 154:1085-99. PMCID: PMC23954414
  72. *Wei Y, Zou Z, Becker N, Anderson M, Sumpter R, Xiao G, Kinch L, Koduru P, Christudass CS, Veltri RW, Grishin NV, Peyton M, Minna J, Bhagat G, Levine B.  EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of Beclin 1 in autophagy suppression, tumor progression and tumor chemoresistance. Cell. 2013; 154:1269-1284. PMCID: PMC3917713
  73. *Liu Y, Shoji-Kawata S, Sumpter R, Wei Y, Ginet V, Zhang L, Posner B, Tran KA, Green DR, Xavier R, Shaw S, Clarke PGH, Puyal J, Levine B. Autosis is a Na+,K+-ATPase-regulated form of autophagic cell death triggered by autophagy-inducing peptides, starvation, and hypoxia-ischemia. PNAS. 2013; 110:20364-20371. PMCID: PMC24277826
  74. Su M, Mei Y, Sanishvili R, Levine B, Colbert CL, and Sinha S. Targeting g-herpesvirus 68 Bcl-2-mediated down-regulation of autophagy. J. Biol. Chem. 2014; 289; 8029-8040. PMCID:PMC24443581
  75. *Lee E, Koo Y, Ng A, Luby-Phelps K, Juraszek A, Cleaver O, Xavier RJ, Levine B, and Amatruda JF. Autophagy is essential for cardiac morphogenesis during vertebrate development. Autophagy. 2014; 10:572-587. PMCID:PMC24441423
  76. Nassif M, Valenzuela V, Rojas-Rivera D, Vidal R, Matus S, Castillo K, Fuentealba Y,   Kroemer G, Levine B, Hetz C. Pathogenic role of BECN1/Beclin 1 in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Autophagy. 2014; 10:1256-1271. PMCID: PMC4203551
  77. Zhong R, Kim J, Kim HS, Kim M, Lum L, Levine B, Xiao G, White MA, Xie Y. Computational detection and suppression of sequence-specific off-target phenotypes from whole genome RNAi screens. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014; 42:8214-8222. PMCID: PMC4117740
  78. Mandell MA, Arko-Mensah JA, Pilli M, Dinkins C, Kyei G, Chauhan S, Bradfute SB, Castillo EF, Dupont N, Jiang S, Silvestri G, Munch J, Kirchhoff F, Wei Y, Simonsen A, Johansen T, Levine B, and Deretic V. TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition. Dev Cell. 2014; 30:394-409. PMCID: PMC25127057
  79. *An Z, Tassa A, Thomas C, Zhong R, Xiao G, Tu B, Klionsky DJ, and Levine B. Autophagy is required for G1/G0 quiescence in response to nitrogen starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Autophagy. 2014; 10:1702-1711. PMCID:PMC4198356
  80. Kraya AA, Piao S, Xu X, Zhang G, Herlyn M, Gimotty P, Levine B, Amaravadi RK, and Speicher DW. Identification of secreted proteins that reflect autophagy dynamics within tumor cells. Autophagy. 2015; 11:60-74. PMCID- in process.
  81. *Tang H, Sebti S, Titone R, Zhou Y, Isidoro C, Ross T, Hibshoosh H, Xiao, G, Packer M, Xie Y, and Levine B. Decreased expression of BECN1 in breast cancer is associated with ER-negative subtypes and poor prognosis. EBioMedicine. 2015; 2:255-263. PMCID: PMC4376376
  82. *Wei Y, An Z, Zou Z, Sumpter R, Su M, Zang X, Sinha S, Gaestel M, and Levine B. The stress-responsive kinases MAPKAPK2/MAPKAPK3 activate starvation-induced autophagy through Beclin 1 phosphorylation. eLife. 2015; 4:1-25. PMCID: PMC4337728
  83. Zhong R, Dong X, Levine B, Xie Y, and Xiao G. iScreen: image-based high-throughput screening analysis tools. J Biomol Screen. 2014; December 29[Epub ahead of print]. PMCID: PMC25548139
  84. *Bravo-San Pedro JM, Wei Y, Sica V, Maiuru C, Zou Z, Kroemer, and Levine B. BAX and BAK1 are dispensable for ABT-737-induced dissociation of the BCL2/BECN1 complex and autophagy. Autophagy. 2015; 11:452-9. PMCID- in process.
  85. *Wang H, Sun HQ, Zhu X, Zhang L, Albanesi JP, Levine B, and Yin HL. GABARAPs regulate PI4P-dependent autophagosome:lysosome fusion. PNAS. 2015; May 18[Epub ahead of print]. PMICD- in process.
  86. Collins AC, Cai H, Li T, Franco LH, Li XD, Nair VR, Stamm CE, Scharn CR, Levine B, Chen ZJ, and Shiloh MU. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is an innate immune sensor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Cell Host & Microbe. 2015;In press.

Invited Review Articles

  1. Griffin DE, Levine B, Tyor WR, and Irani D.  The immune response to viral encephalitis.  Seminars in  Immunology. 1992; 4:111-119.
  2. Griffin DE, Levine B, Ubol S, and Tucker P.  Determinants of Sindbis virus neuronal infection and clearance.  In Discussions in Neuroscience.  F. E. Bloom, I.L. Campbell, L. Mucke  (ed.) 1993; vol. IX, 3/4:42-46.
  3. * Levine B, Hardwick JM, and Griffin DE.  Persistence of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.  Trends in Microbiol. 1994; 2:25-28.
  4. Griffin DE, Levine B, Ubol S, and Hardwick JM.  The effects of alphavirus infection on neurons.  Ann Neurol. 1994; 35:S23-27.
  5. Griffin DE, Levine B, Tyor WR, Tucker PC, and Hardwick JM.  Age-dependent susceptibility to fatal encephalitis: alphavirus infection of neurons.  Arch Virol. 1994; (Suppl) 9:31-39.
  6. Griffin DE, Levine B, Tyor W, Ubol S, and Despres P.  The role of antibody in recovery from alphavirus encephalitis.  Immunol  Rev. 1997; 159:155-161.
  7. Hardwick JM and Levine B.  Sindbis virus vector system for functional analysis of apoptosis regulators.  Methods Enzymol. 2000; 322:492-508.
  8. *Levine B.  Apoptosis in viral infections of neurons: a protective or pathologic host response.  Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002; 265:95-118.
  9. *Levine B and Klionsky D.  Development by self-digestion: molecular mechanisms and biological functions of autophagy.  Dev Cell. 2004; 6:463-477.
  10. *Levine B.  Eating oneself and uninvited guests: autophagy-related pathways in cellular defense.  Cell. 2005; 120:159-162.
  11. *Levine B and Yuan J.  Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?  J Clin Invest. 2005; 115:2679-2688.
  12. *Pattingre S and Levine B.  Bcl-2 inhibition of autophagy: a new route to cancer?  Cancer Res.  2006; 66:2885-2888.
  13. *Levine B.  Unraveling the role of autophagy in cancer.  Autophagy. 2006; 2:65-66.
  14. *Pattingre S, Levine B, and Codogno P.  L’autophagie ou quand la cellule s’autodigère.  Pour La Science. 2006; 343:74-80.
  15. *Levine B.  Cell biology:  autophagy and cancer.  Nature. 2007; 446:745-747.
  16. *Levine B and Deretic V.  Unveiling the roles of autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.  Nat Rev Immunol. 2007; 7:767-777.
  17. *Levine B and Kroemer G.  Autophagy in the pathogenesis of disease.  Cell. 2008; 132:27-42.
  18. *Levine B and Kroemer G.  Snapshot:  Macroautophagy.  Cell. 2008; 132:162. PMCID: PMC25221369
  19. *Orvedahl AO and Levine B.  Viral evasion of autophagy.  Autophagy. 2008; 4:280-285.
  20. Klionsky DJ et al.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes.  Autophagy. 2008; 4:151-175.
  21. Mizushima N, Levine B, Cuervo AM, and Klionsky D.  Autophagy fights disease through cellular self-digestion.  Nature. 2008; 451:1069-1075.
  22. *Levine B, Sinha S, and Kroemer G.  Bcl-2 family members: dual regulators of apoptosis and autophagy.  Autophagy. 2008; 4:600-606.
  23. *Orvedahl A and Levine B.  Autophagy and viral neurovirulence.  Cell Microbiol. 2008; 10(9):1747-1756.
  24. *Cecconi F and Levine B.  The role of autophagy in mammalian development: cell makeover rather than cell death.  Dev Cell. 2008; 15:344-357.
  25. *Orvedahl A and Levine B.  Eating the enemy within: autophagy in infectious diseases.  Cell Death & Diff. 2009; 16:57-69.
  26. *Kroemer G and Levine B.  Autophagic cell death: the story of a misnomer.  Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol.  2008; 9:1004-1010.
  27. *Virgin HW and Levine B.  Autophagy genes in immunity.  Nat Immunol.  2009; 10:461-470.
  28. *Deretic V and Levine B.  Autophagy, immunity, and microbial adaptations.  Cell Host & Microbe.  2009; 5:527-549.
  29. *Shoji-Kawata S and Levine B.  Autophagy, antiviral immunity, and viral countermeasures.  Biochem Biophys Acta.  2009; 1793:1478-1484.
  30. *Sinha S and Levine B.  The autophagy effector Beclin 1: a novel BH3-only protein.  Oncogene.  2009;  Suppl 1:S137-148.
  31. *Kudchodkar SB and Levine B.  Viruses and autophagy.  Rev Med Virol.  2009; 19:359-378.
  32. *He C and Levine B.  The Beclin 1 interactome.  Curr Opin Cell Biol.  2010; 22:140-149.
  33. *Wang RC and Levine B.  Autophagy in cellular growth control  FEBS Lett.  2010; 584:1417-1426.
  34. *Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, and Levine B.  Methods in mammalian autophagy research.  Cell  2010; 140:312-326.
  35. Klionsky D, Codogno P, Cuervo AM, Deretic V, Elazar Z, Fueyo-Margareto J-F, Gewirtz D, Kroemer G, Levine B, Mizushima N, Rubinsztein DC, Thumm M, and Tooze SA.  A comprehensive glossary of autophagy-related molecules and processes.  Autophagy. 2010; 4:438-448.
  36. *Sumpter Jr R and Levine B.  Autophagy and innate immunity: triggering, targeting and tuning.  Sem in Dev Cell Biol.  2010; 21:699-711.
  37. Mizushima N and Levine B.  Autophagy in mammalian development and differentiation.  Nat Cell Biol.  2010; 12:823-830.
  38. *Kroemer G, Marino G, and Levine B.  Autophagy and the integrated stress response.  Mol Cell.  2010; 40:280-293.
  39. *Levine B, Mizushima N, and Virgin HW. Autophagy in immunity and inflammation.  Nature.  2011; 469:323-335. PMCID: PMC3131688
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