Linda A. Baker, M.D.


  1. Prieto, J.C. and Baker, L.A.: “Flaps in Hypospadias Surgery.”  In Hinman’s Atlas of Urologic Surgery, 3rd Edition, Eds. Resnick, M., Howards, S., McGuire, E., Preminger, G., and Smith, Jr., J. Ch. 27, In Press, 2010.
  2. Bergu, B., Docimo, S.G., and Baker, L.A.: Cryptorchidism.  In Pediatric Urology, Eds. Gearhart, Rink and Mouriquand.  W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.  2nd Edition, In press, 2009.
  3. Prieto, J.C. and Baker, L.A.: "Surgical management of the sphincter mechanism." In Pediatric Urology: Surgical Complications and Management, Eds. Wilcox, D., Godbole, P. and Koyle, M.  Blackwell Publishing, Oxford , England.  Ch 41, pp.322-333, 2008.
  4. Yucel, S. and Baker, L.A. Bladder Outlet Injection for Urinary Incontinence.  In Pediatric Endourology Techniques, Ed. Godbole, P. Springer-Verlag London Ltd.  Ch 13, pp. 85-91, 2007.
  5. Yucel, S. and Baker, L.A. STING for VUR.  In Pediatric Endourology Techniques, Ed. Godbole, P. Springer-Verlag London Ltd.  Ch 12, pp. 77-84, 2007.
  6. Baker, L.A. General Principles of Cystourethroscopy.  In Pediatric Endourology Techniques, Ed. Godbole, P. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, England.  Ch 11, pp. 67-76, 2007.
  7. Grady, R and Baker, L.A.  Exstrophy-Epispadias Complex.  In The Kelalis-King-Belman Textbook of Clinical Pediatric Urology.  Eds. Docimo, S.G., Canning D., and Khoury. A.  Informa Healthcare, Ch, pp, 2007.
  8. Baker, L.A. and Jordan, G.H.  Laparoscopic Treatment of the Non-palpable Testicle. In Smith’s Textbook of Endourology, Eds. Smith, A.D., et al.  BC Decker, Inc, Hamilton, Ontario, 2nd edition, Ch. 94, pp 847-855, 2006.
  9. Baker, L.A., Lorenzo, A.J., Jordan, G.H., and Docimo, S.G.  Laparoscopy and Cryptorchidism. In Minimally Invasive Approaches to Pediatric Urology, Ed. Docimo, S.G..  Taylor & Francis, Oxfordshire, OX, UK.  Ch. 14, pp 161-176, 2005.
  10. Baker, L.A., Lorenzo, A.J., Jordan, G.H., and Docimo, S.G.  Laparoscopy and Cryptorchidism. In Minimally Invasive Urologic Surgery, Ed. Moore, R.G., Bishoff, J.T., Loening, S., and Docimo, S.G..  Taylor & Francis, Oxfordshire, OX, UK.  Ch. 63, pp 875-890, 2005.
  11. Baker, L.A. and Jordan, G.H.  Laparoscopic Management of the Nonpalpable Testicle.  In Glenn’s Urologic Surgery, Ed. Sam D. Graham, Jr.  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Ch. 132, pp 1015-1023, 2004.
  12. Baker, L.A., Silver, R.I., Docimo, S.G.: Cryptorchidism.  In Pediatric Urology, Eds. Gearhart, Rink and Mouriquand.  W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia.  Ch 46, pp. 738-754, 2001.
  13. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.: Congenital Diseases of the Lower Urinary Tract.  In Comprehensive Urology. Eds. Weiss, O’Reilly, and George. Mosby International: Ch. 15, pp. 203-17, 2001.
  14. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.: Male Epispadias. In Progress in Pediatric Urology, Vol II, 49-66, 2000.
  15. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.:  Continent Urinary Diversion in Children. In Progress in Pediatric Urology, Vol I, 67-79, 1998.
  16. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.:  The Current Philosophy and Management of Classic Bladder Exstrophy. In Progress in Pediatric Urology, 28-43, 1998.



  1. Yucel, S., Henkemeyer, M., Garcia, N., and Baker, L.A.  Eph/ephrin signaling in hypospadias and anorectal malformations. Proceedings of the First World Congress on Hypospadias and Intersex Disorders, pp. 51-66, 2006.
  2. Samuelson, M. and Baker, L. A.:  Consequences of Failure of Initial Bladder Exstrophy Closure. Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Exstrophy and Epispadias, Kluwer Publishing. In press, 2005.
  3. Baker, L.A., Abidari, J.M.:  Overview of the molecular basis of ureteral budding and metanephrosis differentiation. Dialogues in Pediatric Urology, 23:5-7, 2000.
  4. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.:  The failed bladder exstrophy closure. Dialogues in Pediatric Urology, 22:3-5, 1999.
  5. Baker, L.A., Gomez, R.A.:  Embryonic development of the ureter. Seminars in Nephrology, 18:569-584, 1998.



  1. McAdams, S., Kim, N., Dajusta, D., Monga, M., Ravish, I.R., Nerli, R., Baker, L.A., and Shukla, A.R.  Preoperative Stone Attenuation Value Predicts Success After Shock Wave Lithotripsy (SWL) in Children.  J Urol, In press, 2010.
  2. Barber T.D., Derinkuyu B.E., Joglar J., Koral K., and Baker L.A.  Wilms' Tumor: Risk Factors for Intraoperative Tumor Spill.  J Urol, In press, 2010.
  3.  Yiee, J.H., Baker, L.A., Welch, S., and Wilcox, D.T.  Histological Differences between Extrinsic and Intrinsic Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction.  Urology, In press, 2010.
  4.  Sozubir, S., Barber, T., Wang, Y., Ahn, C. Zhang, S., Verma, S., Lonergan, D., Lorenzo, A.J., Nef, S., and Baker, L.A.  Loss of Insl3: A potential predisposing factor for testicular torsion.  J Urol, In press, 2010.
  5. Cost, N.G., Schlomer, B.J., Barber, T., Twickler, D., Magee, K., and Baker, L.A.  Prenatal Diagnosis of 46,XY Ambiguous Genitalia with Postnatal Diagnosis of Epispadias.  Dialogues in Pediatric Urology 31(2): 11, 2010. 
  6. Brown, B.J., Habelt, S., Koral, K., Sacco, D., Herman, J.H., and Baker, L.A.  Secondary Nocturnal Enuresis Caused by Central Sleep Apnea from Chiari Malformation Type 1.  J Peds Urol, 6(3): 265-269, 2010.
  7. Cost, N.G., Wilcox, D.T., Baker, L.A.  Hernias After Pediatric Laparoscopic Urologic Surgery.  J Urol 183(3): 1163-7, 2010.
  8. Bush, N.C., Xu, L., Brown, B., Holzer, Gingrich, A., Schuler, B., Tong, L., and Baker, L.A.  Hospitalizations for Pediatric Stone Disease in the United States, 2002-2007.  J Urol 183(3): 1151-6, 2010.
  9. Barber, TD, Wickiser, JE, Wilcox, DT, and Baker, LA.  Prechemotherapy laparoscopic nephrectomy for Wilms’ tumor. J Pediatr Urol, 5, 416-419 and 422, 2009.
  10. Prieto, J.C., Ziada, A., Baker, L.A., and Snodgrass, W.T. Ureteroureterostomy Via Inguinal Incision for Ectopic Ureters and Ureteroceles Without Ipsilateral Lower Pole Reflux.    J Urol 181(2), 1844-1850, 2009.
  11. Cost, N.G., Ludwig, A.T., Wilcox, D.T., Rajheka, D., Steinberg, S.J., and Baker, L.A.  A Novel SOX9 Mutation, 972delC, Causes 46,XY Sex-Reversed Campomelic Dysplasia with Nephrocalcinosis, Urolithiasis and Dysgerminoma.  J Peds Surg, 44(2): 451-4, 2009.
  12. Cost NG, Sanchez FS, Weinberg AG, Koral K and Baker LA. Neurofibromatosis presenting as painless clitoromegaly, a case report with literature review. Urol J., 6(3):220-2, 2009.
  13. Sanchez, F., Prieto, J.C., Koral, K. and Baker, L.A. Childhood Renal Lymphangiectasia.  International Braz J Urol, 34(6):772-773, 2008.
  14. Cost, N.G., Lucas, S.M., Baker, L.A. and Wilcox, D.T.  Case Report: Two Females with Urethral Duplication. Urology, 72(4):800-2, 2008.
  15. Sanchez, F., Prieto, J.C., and Baker, L.A. Spontaneous Bladder Rupture in Non-augmented Bladder Exstrophy.  J Peds Urol, 4:325-328, 2008.
  16. Yucel, S., Brown, B., Ahmad, N., Baker, L.A. What to Anticipate With Experience in Pediatric Laparoscopic Ablative Renal Surgery.  J Urol, 179 (2), 697-702, 2008.
  17. Yiee, J.H., Garcia, N., Baker, L.A., Barber, R., Snodgrass, W.T., and Wilcox, D.T.  A Diagnostic Algorithm for Urachal Anomalies J Peds Urol 3:500-504, 2007.
  18. Zeltser, I.S., Bergs, R., Fernandez, R., Baker, L., Eberhart, R., and Cadeddu, J.A.  Single Trocar Laparoscopic Nephrectomy Using Magnetic Anchoring and Guidance System in the Porcine Model.  J Urol, 178: 288-291, 2007.
  19. Prieto, J.C., Garcia, N.M., Elder F.F., Zinn A.R., Baker, L.A. Phenotypic Expansion of the Supernumerary Derivative (22) Chromosome Syndrome.  J Peds Surg, 41(11): 1928-32, 2007.
  20. Yucel, S., Ziada, A., Harrison, C., Wilcox, D., Baker, L.A., Snodgrass, W.T. Decision-Making During Laparoscopic Orchiopexy For Intraabdominal Testes Near The Internal Ring.  J Urol, 178(4 Pt 1): 1447-50, 2007.
  21. Cameron, M.A., Baker, L.A., Maalouf, N., Moe, O., Sakhaee, K.  Circadian Variation in Urine pH and Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis Risk.  Nephrol Dial Transpl, 22:2375-2378, 2007.
  22. Dodson, J.L., Baird, A.D., Baker, L.A., Docimo, S.G., and Mathews, R.I.  Outcomes of delayed hypospadias repair: Implications for decision making.  J Urol, 178(1):278-81, 2007.
  23. Yucel, S., Dravis, C., Garcia, N., Henkemeyer, M., and Baker, L.A.  Hypospadias and anorectal malformations mediated by Eph/ephrin signaling. J Peds Urol, 3:354-363, 2007.
  24. Karam, J.A. and Baker, L.A.  Focal Orchitis Presenting As Bilateral Testicular Masses.  J Peds Urol, 3:337-339, 2007.
  25. Park, S., Bergs, R.A., Eberhart, R., Baker, L., Fernandez, R., and Cadeddu, J.A.  Trochar-less instrumentation for laparoscopy:  Magnetic Positioning of Intra-abdominal camera and Retractor. Ann Surg, 245(3):379-84, 2007.
  26. Miller, M., Baker, L.A., Tannin, G., and Koral, K.  Lower extremity venous obstruction secondary to congenital bladder diverticulum, J Urol, 177(5):1891, 2007.
  27. Yucel, S., Samuelson, M., Nguyen, M.T. and Baker, L.A.  Usefulness of short-term retrievable ureteral stent in pediatric laparoscopic pyeloplasty. J Urol, 177(2):720-5, 2007.
  28. Sozubir, S., Ewalt, D. H., Strand, W. R., and Baker, L.A.  Familial Cases of Ureteroceles: Support for a Genetic Basis.  Review Series: Urology, In press, 2007.
  29. Jenkins, D., Bitner-Glindzicz, M., Thomasson, L., Malcolm, S., Warne, S. A., Feather, S. A., Falnagan, S. E., Ellard, S., Bingham, C., Santos, L., Henkemeyer, M., Zinn, A., Baker, L. A., Wilcox, D.T., and Woolf, A. Mutation analyses of UPIIIA, SHH, EFNB2 and HNF1β in persistent cloaca and associated kidney malformations. J Peds Urol, 3(1):2-9, 2007.
  30. Samuelson, M. and Baker, L.A. Autologous Buccal Mucosa Vulvovaginoplasty for High Urogenital Sinus. J Peds Urol, 2(5):486-488, 2006.
  31. Garcia, N.M., Allgood, J., Santos, L.J., Lonergan, D., Batanian, J.R., Henkemeyer, M., Bartsch, O., Schultz, R.A., Zinn, A.R., and Baker, L.A.  Deletion Mapping of Critical Region for Hypospadias, Penoscrotal Transposition and Imperforate Anus on Human Chromosome 13.  J Peds Urol, 2(4):233-242, 2006.
  32. Sozubir, S., Ewalt, D. H., Strand, W. R., and Baker, L.A.  Familial Ureteroceles: An Evidence for Genetic Background?  Turkish J Pediatr, 47(3):255-60, 2005.
  33. Dravis, C., Yokoyama, N., Chumley, M.J., Cowan, C.A., Silvany, R.S., Shay, J., Baker, L.A. and Henkemeyer, M.  Bidirectional signaling mediated by ephrin-B2 and EphB2 controls urorectal development.  Dev Biol, 271(2):272-90, 2004.  July 15 Issue Cover Photograph.
  34. Cowan, C.A., Yokoyama, N., Saxena, A., Chumley, M.J., Silvany, R.S., Baker, L.A., Srivastava, D., and Henkemeyer, M.  Ephrin-B2 reverse signaling is required for axon pathfinding and cardiac valve formation but not early vascular development. Dev Biol, 271(2):263-71, 2004.
  35. Lorenzo, A.J., Samuelson, M.L., Docimo, S.G., Baker, L.A., and Lotan, Y.  Cost analysis of laparoscopic versus open orchiopexy in the management of unilateral nonpalpable testicles.  J Urol, 172(2):712-6.  2004.
  36. Karam, J. A. and Baker, L. A.  True Hermaphrodite.  New Engl J Med, 350:393, 2004.
  37. Fernandez R, Bergs R, Eberhart R, Baker L, and Cadeddu JA. Development of a Transabdominal Anchoring System for Trocar-Less Laparoscopic Surgery. Advances in Bioengineering-ASME International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, Washington DC, 2003, BED Vol. 55, pp 157-158.
  38. Lorenzo, A.J., Abdel-Aziz, K, Wilson, T.S., Lemack, G.E., Lin, V, and Baker, L.A.  FK506-Binding Protein 65 (FKBP-65) Expression In Mouse Bladder During Development.  J Urol, In press, 2003.
  39. Lorenzo, A.J., Nguyen, M.T., Sozubir, S., Henkemeyer, M., and Baker, L.A.  Dihydrotestosterone induction of EphB2 expression in the female genital tubercle mimics male pattern of expression during embryogenesis.  J Urol, 170:1618-23; discussion 1623, 2003.
  40. Surer, I., Ferrer, F.A., Baker, L.A., and Gearhart, J.P.  Continent urinary diversion and the exstrophy-epispadias complex.  J Urol, 169: 1102-5, 2003.
  41. Lorenzo, A.J., Twickler, D.M., and Baker, L.A.  Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome with bilateral duplicated systems mimicking ectopic obstructing ureteroceles.  Urology, 62: 144xiv-144xvi, 2003.
  42. Sozubir, S., Lorenzo, A.J., Twickler, D.M., Baker, L.A., and Ewalt, D.E.  Prenatal diagnosis of a prolapsed ureterocele with magnetic resonance imaging.  Urology, 62: 144viii-144x, 2003.
  43. Lotan, Y., Gettman, M.T., Ogan, K. Baker, L.A., and Cadeddu, J.A.:  Clinical Use of the Holmium:YAG Laser in Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy.  J Endourology, 16: 289-292, 2002.
  44. Nguyen, M.T., Showalter, P., Timmons, C.F., Nef, S., Parada, L.F., and Baker, L.A.  Effects of Orchiopexy on Congenitally Cryptorchid Insulin-3 Knockout Mice.  J Urol, 168:1779-83, 2002.
  45. Elmore, J., Baker, L.A., Snodgrass, W.T.: Topical Steroid Treatment as an Alternative to Circumcision in Boys less than 3 years of Age.  J Urol, 168(4) Pt 2: 1746-1747, 2002.
  46. Baker, L.A., Zhang, S., Nef, S., Nguyen, M., Pohl, H., and Parada, L.F.  The Insulin-3 (INSL3) Gene: Lack of a genetic basis for human cryptorchidism. J Urol, 167(6): 2534-7, 2002.
  47. Dodson, J.L., Surer, I., Baker, L.A., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P.:  The newborn exstrophy bladder inadequate for primary closure:  Evaluation, management and outcome. J Urol 165(5):1656-1659, 2001.
  48. Baker, L.A., Docimo, S.G., Peters, C., Cisek, L., Diamond, D.A., Caldamone, A., Koyle, M., Strand, W., Moore, R., Mevorach, R., Brady, J., Jordan, G., Erhard, M., Surer, I., Franco, I.: A Multi-Institutional analysis of laparoscopic orchidopexy. Br J Urol International, 87(6):484-9, 2001.
  49. Surer, I., Baker, L.A., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P.:  Combined bladder neck reconstruction and epispadias repair for exstrophy-epispadias complex. J Urol, 165(6 Pt 2): 2425-7, 2001.
  50. Surer, I., Baker, L.A., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P.:  Modified Young-Dees-Leadbetter bladder neck reconstruction in patients with successful primary closure elsewhere: A single institution experience. J Urol, 165(6 Pt 2): 2438-40, 2001.
  51. Cuellar D.C., Kavoussi P.K., Baker L.A., Docimo S.G.: Open laparoscopic access using a radially dilating trocar: experience and indications in 50 consecutive cases. J Endourol, 14(9):755-6, 2000.
  52. Baker, L.A., Mathews, R.I., Docimo, S.G.:  Radical mobilization of the bulbar urethra to lengthen urethral plate and correct chordee in proximal hypospadias. J Urol, 164(4):1347-9, 2000.
  53. Surer, I., Baker, L.A., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P.:  Modified Cantwell-Ransley repair for exstrophy and epispadias: 10-Year experience. J Urol 164 (Pt 2): 1040-1043, 2000.
  54. Baker, L.A., Gomez, R.A.:  TMP21-1, a vesicular trafficking protein, is differently expressed during induction of ureter and metanephros. J Urol 164:562-566, 2000.
  55. Baker, L.A., Sigman, D., Mathews, R.I., Benson, J., Docimo, S.G.: An analysis of clinical outcomes using color doppler testicular ultrasound for testicular torsion. Pediatrics 105:604-607, 2000.
  56. Herndon, C.D., McKenna, P.H., Kolon, T.F., Gonzales, E.T., Baker, L.A., Docimo, S.G.:  A multicenter outcomes analysis of patients with neonatal reflux presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis. J Urol 162 (Pt 2):1203-8, 1999.
  57. Baker, L.A., Docimo, S.G.: Letter to the Editor re: Vesicoureteral reflux in infants with prenatal hydronephrosis confirmed at birth: Racial differences. J Urol 162:1705, 1999.
  58. Lee, C., Chaleff, S., Thakkar, R., Surer, I., Baker, L.A., Docimo, S.G., Clements, J.: Use of an artificial neural network to predict the likelihood of upper tract deterioration in meningomyelocele patients. In managing information technology resources in organization in the next millennium, 1999.  Edited by Mehdi Khosrowpour, Idea Group Publishing, London, UK.  Proceedings from the International Information Resources Management Association Annual Conference, Hershey, Pennsylvania, 227-233.
  59. Baker, L.A., Jeffs, R.D., Gearhart, J.P.: Urethral obstruction after primary bladder exstrophy closure: What is the fate of the genitourinary tract? J Urol 161:618-621, 1999.
  60. Baker, L.A., Chow, N.H., Docimo, S.G., Gearhart, J.P., Sidransky, D., Schoenberg, M.P.: Micro-satellite deoxyribonucleic acid analysis to detect bladder cancer in bladder exstrophy. J Urol 160:2192-2193, 1998.
  61. Baker, L.A., Gearhart, J.P.: The staged approach to bladder exstrophy closure and the role of osteotomies. W J Urol 16:205-211, 1998.
  62. Baker. L.A., Gomez, R.A.:  Embryonic development of the ureter and bladder:  Acquisition of smooth muscle. J Urol 160:545-550, 1998.
  63. Baker, L.A., Turner, T.T.: Leydig cell function after experimental testicular torsion despite loss of spermatogenesis. J Androl 16:12-17, 1995.
  64. Flickinger, C.J., Howards, S.S., Skaggs, L.A., Baker, L.A., Herr, J.C.:  Antisperm autoantibody responses to vasectomy and vasovasostomy in Fischer and Lewis rats. J Reprod Immunol 28:137-157, 1995.
  65. Flickinger, C.J., Howards, S.S., Bush, L.A., Baker, L.A., Herr, J.C.:  Temporal recognition of sperm autoantigens by IgM and IgG autoantibodies after vasectomy and vasovasostomy. J Reprod Immunol 27:135-150, 1994.